Clean Fuels

A better future for transportation begins with cleaner, more efficient fuel.

“Emissions standards alone do not achieve the benefits of Clean Air Quality. Over the years, fuel quality has been improved to match vehicle technology to support the effort in reducing emissions”

- Asian Clean Fuels Association

Government bodies & Legislation

For most cities, industry and motor transport remain the main sources of air pollution.

To address worsening air quality resulting from motorvehicles, governments are enforcing stricter regulations pertaining to emission standards and fuel quality.

Advancements in Technology

To meet the progressively tighter emission standards as the legislation has developed, automakers have improved vehicle technologies such as variable valve timing, direct fuel injection, more sophisticated engine management systems and more seamless integrated exhaust after-treatment system.

Clean fuels are Vital

Aligning higher quality fuel with improved vehicle technology ensure reduced emissions from motor vehicles. Clean fuels are instrumental to improve fuel quality.

ACFA Support & Commitment

ACFA work with key stakeholders, ranging from policymakers, environmental NGOs, international standard bodies, oil industry and the automakers to ensure than fuel quality of Asian and Middle Eastern countries are of the highest standard.

Global Standards

The European emission standards (nominally referred to as ‘Euro’ standards) define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in the European Union and EEA member states.
The aim of the Euro emissions standards is to reduce harmful exhaust emission levels, chiefly:

NOx
Nitrogen Oxide

CO
Carbon Monoxide

HC
Hydrocarbons

PM
Particulate Matter

The Euro standards are used globally (as a policy reference), including in AsiaPacific, Middle East and Africa.

There are largely three main sets of standards: United States, Japanese, and European. Most countries in Asia and the Middle East refer to the European standards as a base, as it is more comprehensive.

Emission Reduction obtained from Switching from <50 ppm Sulphur to <10 ppm Sulfur Diesel Fuel in Euro 3 and Euro 4 Diesel Vehicles
%
HC
NOx
CO
CO2
CH4
PM
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-51
-25
0
-4
-38
-32
-2
-2
-4
-12
-20
-16
Euro 3 Diesel Vehicle
Euro 4 Diesel Vehicle
Emission Reduction obtained from Switching from 50 ppm Sulfur to 10 ppm S Gasoline Fuel in Euro 3 and Euro 4 Gasoline Vehicles
%
HC
NOx
CO
CO2
CH4
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-2
-25
-14
-31
-35
-74
0
0
-7
-100
Euro 3 Gasoline Vehicle
Euro 4 Gasoline Vehicle

Source: Dr Supat Wangwongwatana, Thammasat University

From the Bangkok case study, switching from Euro 3 to Euro 5 reduces emissions by more than half.

History and levels of Euro standards for passenger cars
INTRODUCTION DATES
PETROL
DIESEL
PETROL & DIESEL
Euro Standard
New Approvals
All new registrations
NOx (g/km)
Mass of Particles (g/km)
NOx (g/km)
Mass of Particles (g/km)
Number of ultra-fine particles per km
Euro 1
1 July 1992
31 December 1992
0.97(1)
-
0.97(1)
0.14
-
Euro 2
1 January 1996
1 January 1997
0.5(1)
-
0.9(1)
0.1
-
Euro 3
1 January 2000
1 January 2001
0.15
-
0.5
0.05
-
Euro 4
1 January 2005
1 January 2006
0.08
-
0.25
0.025
-
Euro 5
1 September 2009
1 January 2011
0.06
0.0045(2)
0.18
0.0045
6 x 1011(3)
Euro 6
1 September 2014
1 January 2015
0.06
0.0045(2)
0.08
0.0045
6 x 1011(4)(5)
(1) Expressed as HC + NOx.
(2) Applicable to direct injection petrol engines.
(3) Applicable to diesel engines only.
(4) Limit of 6 x 1011 in the case of direct injection petrol engines.
(5) Common limit of 6 x 1011 for direct injection petrol engines and Diesel engines from September 2017/ September 2018.

Table source link

Global Standards

The European emission standards (nominally referred to as ‘Euro’ standards) define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in the European Union and EEA member states.
The aim of the Euro emissions standards is to reduce harmful exhaust emission levels, chiefly:

NOx
Nitrogen Oxide

CO
Carbon Monoxide

HC
Hydrocarbons

PM
Particulate Matter

The Euro standards are used globally (as a policy reference), including in AsiaPacific, Middle East and Africa.

There are largely three main sets of standards: United States, Japanese, and European. Most countries in Asia and the Middle East refer to the European standards as a base, as it is more comprehensive.

Emission Reduction obtained from Switching from <50 ppm Sulphur to <10 ppm Sulfur Diesel Fuel in Euro 3 and Euro 4 Diesel Vehicles

Emission Reduction obtained from Switching from 50 ppm Sulfur to 10 ppm S Gasoline Fuel in Euro 3 and Euro 4 Gasoline Vehicles

Source: Dr Supat Wangwongwatana, Thammasat University

From the Bangkok case study, switching from Euro 3 to Euro 5 reduces emissions by more than half.

History and levels of Euro standards for passenger cars

(1) Expressed as HC + NOx.
(2) Applicable to direct injection petrol engines.
(3) Applicable to diesel engines only.
(4) Limit of 6 x 1011 in the case of direct injection petrol engines.
(5) Common limit of 6 x 1011 for direct injection petrol engines and Diesel engines from September 2017/ September 2018.

Table source link

Benefits of Clean Fuel

US-EPA Study : HC, NOx and Benzene Exhaust Emissions

FUEL
A
B
RVP, psi
9.10
7.00
T10, °F
128
137
T50, °F
221
210
T90, °F
324
305
Aromatics, column%
28.1
21.2
Olefins, volume%
4.0
6.7
Benzene, volume%
1.09
0.41
Sulfur, ppm
32
5
FUEL A
0.060
0.055
0.050
0.045
0.040
0.035
0.030
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
NMHC & NOx Tailpipe Emission, g/mile
Benzene Tailpipe Emission, milligram/mile
FUEL B
Fuel B compared to A
NMHC (non methane hydrocarbons) decrease by 26%
NOx decrease by 36%
Benzene decrease by 43%

Summary of European gasoline and diesel fuel specification developments

YEAR
1993
1995
1996
2000
2005
2005
Gasoline Unleaded 96/85-EN228
Sulphur
ppm m/m
max
1000
500
150
50/10
10
Benzene
% v/v
max
5
1
Aromatics
% v/v
max
42
35
Olefins
% v/v
max
18
Oxygen
% m/m
max
2.5(1)
2.7
RVP (summer)
kPa
max
up to 80
60(2)
E100
% v/v
max
40(s)/ 43(w)
40
FBP
°C
max
215
210
Gasoline Unleaded 96/85-EN228
CI
min
46
CN
min
49
51
Sulphur
ppm m/m
max
2000
500
350
50/10
10(3)
Density
kg/m3
min
820
max
860
845
T95
°C
max
370
360
PAH
% m/m
max
11
Lubricity
μm @ 60°C
max
460
(1) Up to 3.7% at Member State discretion. Individual limits apply to specific compounds
(2) 70 kPa max allowed in Member States with arctic or severe winter conditions
(3) End date for full introduction of 10mg/kg S max diesel remains subject to further review
Table Summary
6.6 imes less sulfur in petrol engine
5.7 times less sulfur in diesel engines
5 times less benzene

Table source CONCAWE Review

What happens when we pursue better fuel quality?

Better Fuels for Better Air via Better Specifications
Abatable Emission
Species
Benzene
NOx
SOx
PM
Ozone
Metals
CO
CO2
HCs/VOCs
Decreasable Impacting Specifications
Benzene
Aromatic
PNAs
Olefins
Sulfur
Lead
MMT
NMA
Vapor Pressure
Octane Numbers
Oxygenates
Energy Density
Hydrogen / Carbon
Improvable Gasoline Parameters
Gasoline Quality Key Tool to Improve Air Quality
Clean fuel components
There are many choices of clean fuel components, used in fuel blending.
Economics and regulations are the deciding factor on octane selection to meet specifications. Each octane component has benefits & limitations when blended intogasoline.
Octane
efficiency
Bio
Comp
PM
Emiss.
GHG
Impact
VOCs
Emiss.
Gr-lev.
Ozone
Volatility
Contrib
Vehicle
Impact
Logistic
Impact
Water
Solub.
Energy
Density
Global
Cost
Ethers
Ethanol
Lead
MMT
Aromatics*
NMA
Methanol
Alkylates
Isomerates
Fuel-Ethers: The Best "All-in-one" Solution for Octane Improvement
* excluding benzene which content is EU-limited to max 1%v/v

Table source Dr Walter Mirabella, ACFA Technical Expert

Fuel Ethers Score Highest vs other available solutions for clean, effective, sustainable, reliable and affordable octane

How oxygenates play a part
Oxygenates is one of the clean fuel component options available refiners to use in order to meet higher fuel quality. Based on legislations, cost, engine compatibility and practicality, oxygenate ranks top in refiners’ preference.
Why is ethers the best choice
Comparing the available clean fuels options, fuel ethers present the best choice to meet high fuel quality standards.
Fuel-ethers are the best all-in-one solution to a countries’ need for clean, efficient, sustainable, reliable and affordable energy to power mobility.

Find out more about fuel ethers: Read more

Benefits of Clean Fuel

US-EPA Study : HC, NOx and Benzene Exhaust Emissions

FUEL
A
B
RVP, psi
9.10
7.00
T10, °F
128
137
T50, °F
221
210
T90, °F
324
305
Aromatics, column%
28.1
21.2
Olefins, volume%
4.0
6.7
Benzene, volume%
1.09
0.41
Sulfur, ppm
32
5
FUEL A
0.060
0.055
0.050
0.045
0.040
0.035
0.030
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
NMHC & NOx Tailpipe Emission, g/mile
Benzene Tailpipe Emission, milligram/mile
FUEL B
Fuel B compared to A
NMHC (non methane hydrocarbons) decrease by 26%
NOx decrease by 36%
Benzene decrease by 43%

Summary of European gasoline and diesel fuel specification developments

(1) Up to 3.7% at Member State discretion. Individual limits apply to specific compounds
(2) 70 kPa max allowed in Member States with arctic or severe winter conditions
(3) End date for full introduction of 10mg/kg S max diesel remains subject to further review
Table Summary
6.6 times less sulfur in petrol engine
5.7 times less sulfur in diesel engines
5 times less benzene

Table source CONCAWE Review

What happens when we pursue better fuel quality?

Better Fuels for Better Air via Better Specifications
Abatable Emission
Species
Benzene
NOx
SOx
PM
Ozone
Metals
CO
CO2
HCs/VOCs
Decreasable Impacting Specifications
Benzene
Aromatic
PNAs
Olefins
Sulfur
Lead
MMT
NMA
Vapor Pressure
Octane Numbers
Oxygenates
Energy Density
Hydrogen / Carbon
Improvable Gasoline Parameters
Gasoline Quality Key Tool to Improve Air Quality
Clean fuel components
There are many choices of clean fuel components, used in fuel blending.
Economics and regulations are the deciding factor on octane selection to meet specifications. Each octane component has benefits & limitations when blended intogasoline.

Fuel Ethers Score Highest vs other available solutions for clean, effective, sustainable, reliable and affordable octane

Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Octane efficiency
Bio Comp
PM Emiss.
GHG Impact
VOCs Emiss.
Gr-lev. Ozone
Volatility Contrib
Vehicle Impact
Logistic Impact
Water Solub.
Energy Density
Global Cost
Fuel-Ethers: The Best "All-in-one" Solution for Octane Improvement
* excluding benzene which content is EU-limited to max 1%v/v
How oxygenates play a part
Oxygenates is one of the clean fuel component options available refiners to use in order to meet higher fuel quality. Based on legislations, cost, engine compatibility and practicality, oxygenate ranks top in refiners’ preference.
Why is ethers the best choice
Comparing the available clean fuels options, fuel ethers present the best choice to meet high fuel quality standards.
Fuel-ethers are the best all-in-one solution to a countries’ need for clean, efficient, sustainable, reliable and affordable energy to power mobility.

Find out more about fuel ethers: Read more

US-EPA Study : HC, NOx and Benzene Exhaust Emissions

FUEL
A
B
RVP, psi
9.10
7.00
T10, °F
128
137
T50, °F
221
210
T90, °F
324
305
Aromatics, column%
28.1
21.2
Olefins, volume%
4.0
6.7
Benzene, volume%
1.09
0.41
Sulfur, ppm
32
5
FUEL A
0.060
0.055
0.050
0.045
0.040
0.035
0.030
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
NMHC & NOx Tailpipe Emission, g/mile
Benzene Tailpipe Emission, milligram/mile
FUEL B
Fuel B compared to A
NMHC (non methane hydrocarbons) decrease by 26%
NOx decrease by 36%
Benzene decrease by 43%

Summary of European gasoline and diesel fuel specification developments

YEAR
1993
1995
1996
2000
2005
2005
Gasoline Unleaded 96/85-EN228
Sulphur
ppm m/m
max
1000
500
150
50/10
10
Benzene
% v/v
max
5
1
Aromatics
% v/v
max
42
35
Olefins
% v/v
max
18
Oxygen
% m/m
max
2.5(1)
2.7
RVP (summer)
kPa
max
up to 80
60(2)
E100
% v/v
max
40(s)/ 43(w)
40
FBP
°C
max
215
210
Gasoline Unleaded 96/85-EN228
CI
min
46
CN
min
49
51
Sulphur
ppm m/m
max
2000
500
350
50/10
10(3)
Density
kg/m3
min
820
max
860
845
T95
°C
max
370
360
PAH
% m/m
max
11
Lubricity
μm @ 60°C
max
460
(1) Up to 3.7% at Member State discretion. Individual limits apply to specific compounds
(2) 70 kPa max allowed in Member States with arctic or severe winter conditions
(3) End date for full introduction of 10mg/kg S max diesel remains subject to further review
Table Summary
6.6 imes less sulfur in petrol engine
5.7 times less sulfur in diesel engines
5 times less benzene

Table source CONCAWE Review

What happens when we pursue better fuel quality?

Better Fuels for Better Air via Better Specifications
Abatable Emission
Species
Benzene
NOx
SOx
PM
Ozone
Metals
CO
CO2
HCs/VOCs
Decreasable Impacting Specifications
Benzene
Aromatic
PNAs
Olefins
Sulfur
Lead
MMT
NMA
Vapor Pressure
Octane Numbers
Oxygenates
Energy Density
Hydrogen / Carbon
Improvable Gasoline Parameters
Gasoline Quality Key Tool to Improve Air Quality
Clean fuel components
There are many choices of clean fuel components, used in fuel blending.
Economics and regulations are the deciding factor on octane selection to meet specifications. Each octane component has benefits & limitations when blended intogasoline.
Octane
efficiency
Bio
Comp
PM
Emiss.
GHG
Impact
VOCs
Emiss.
Gr-lev.
Ozone
Volatility
Contrib
Vehicle
Impact
Logistic
Impact
Water
Solub.
Energy
Density
Global
Cost
Ethers
Ethanol
Lead
MMT
Aromatics*
NMA
Methanol
Alkylates
Isomerates
Fuel-Ethers: The Best "All-in-one" Solution for Octane Improvement
* excluding benzene which content is EU-limited to max 1%v/v

Table source Dr Walter Mirabella, ACFA Technical Expert

Fuel Ethers Score Highest vs other available solutions for clean, effective, sustainable, reliable and affordable octane

How oxygenates play a part
Oxygenates is one of the clean fuel component options available refiners to use in order to meet higher fuel quality. Based on legislations, cost, engine compatibility and practicality, oxygenate ranks top in refiners’ preference.
Why is ethers the best choice
Comparing the available clean fuels options, fuel ethers present the best choice to meet high fuel quality standards.
Fuel-ethers are the best all-in-one solution to a countries’ need for clean, efficient, sustainable, reliable and affordable energy to power mobility.

Find out more about fuel ethers: Read more

The sooner change happens,
the better.

The earlier Asian countries adopt Euro VI emission and fuel standards, the sooner they realise the benefits of better air quality and health benefits.

Current State of Legislation in Asia

Many Asian countries are lagging in timeline behind their European counterparts in enforcing stricter emissions and fuel standards.
ACFA encourages Asian countries to quickly adopt Euro IV and V emission and fuel standards as quickly as possible, in order to reap improved air quality and health benefits.
Status of Fuel Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards in Asia-Pacific
Updated August 2020
Current and Planned Sulphur Levels is in Fuel (max, ppm)
Vehicle Emission Standards and Enforcement
Country
Lead Status
Diesel (ppm)
Petrol (ppm)
50ppm Target Date
Comments
Emission Standards
Comments
Australia
Unleaded
50
50
-
10ppm proposed for 2027
Euro V
Euro VI - 2027
Brunei Darussalam
Unleaded
50
50
-
No comments
Euro 4/ IV
-
Cambodia
Unleaded
1,500
1,000
2,022
No comments
No info
Euro III - 2020
Euro IV - 2022
Euro V - 2025
China (nationwide)
Unleaded (since 2001)
10
10
-
10ppm in fuels since 2017
China V (Euro V)
Nationwide China VI - January 2021 (postponed, initially planned for 1st July 2020)
China
(Hong Hong SAR)
Unleaded
10
10
-
No comments
Euro V
Plans to move to Euro VI, in conjunction with China
Chinese Taipei
Unleaded (since 2000)
10
10
-
10ppm petrol since 2012 and since 2011 in diesel
Euro VI
Euro VI introduced in September 2019
India
Unleaded (since 2000)
50
50
-
10ppm petrol and diesel proposed in 2020 (postponed)
Bharat VI
Nationwide Bharat VI implemented in April 2020
Indonesia
Unleaded (since 2000)
500
500
2,022
No comments
Euro IV
Euro IV implemented in 2018
Japan
Unleaded
10
10
-
No comments
Equivalent to Euro 5/6
No comments
Myanmar
Unleaded (since 2016)
500
50
2021/2023
50ppm petrol proposed in 2021 and diesel in 2023
Euro III
Euro IV proposed in 2021
New Zealand
Unleaded
10
10
-
10ppm petrol in 2018 and diesel in 2009
Euro VI
-
Philippines
Unleaded (since 2000)
50
50
-
-
Euro IV
Euro IV since January 2016
Republic of Korea
Unleaded (1999)
10
10
-
No comments
Euro VI
Euro VI since 2015
Singapore
Unleaded (1999)
10
10
-
-
Euro VI
Euro VI since September 2017
Thailand
Unleaded
50
50
-
10ppm proposed for January 2024
Euro IV
Euro VI proposed for 2023
Vietnam
Unleaded
50
50
-
No comments
Euro IV
Euro V proposed for 2022

Projected implementation of improved emission standards

Country
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
Singapore
Euro IV
Euro V
Malaysia
Euro II
* Euro IV (M)
Indonesia
-
Euro II
Euro IV
China
China IV
China V
China VI
Taiwan
Euro V
S. Korea
Euro VI
Vietnam
Euro II
Euro IV
Euro V
Thailand
Euro III
Euro IV
Euro V
Myanmar
Euro II
Euro IV
Japan
Euro V
Philippines
Euro II
Euro IV
India
Bharat III
Bharat IV
Bharat VI
*Euro IV(M) here refers to Malaysian modified Euro 4 fuel specification which has a maximum allowable limit for benzene in gasoline reduced from 5% to 3.5%. The original Euro IV standards has a maximum allowable limit for benzene at 1%.

Finnish and Sweden study

The table in this slide shows a study that Finland and Sweden did using MTBE in gasoline. They call it reformulated gasoline. The study results show that the reformulated gasoline improved emission considerably.
FINLAND
Reformulated gasoline (unleaded)
Reformulated diesel
CO
-25% to -12%
-6% to 2%
HC
-8% to -5%
-20% to 12%
NOx
-12% to -3%
-12% to -5%
PM
-15%
-25% to -10%
PAH
-57%
-54%
SO2
-58%
-96%
SWEDEN
MK2 gasoline (unleaded)
MK1 Diesel
MK2 Diesel
CO
-1% to 4%
-6% to 8%
9%
HC
-3% to 1%
2% to 18%
-10% to 24%
NOx
-4% to -1%
-11% to -5%
-9% to -4%
PM
-15%
-30% to -10%
-12% to -4%
PAH
-27%
-75%
-36%
SO2
-59%
-99%
-95%
● Uncertainties regarding the extent of emission changes for CO and HC from diesel vehicles is judged to be higher than for NOx, PM, PAH, and SO2.
● A direct comparison of changes in emissions due to improved fuels for Finland and Sweden is not possible since the initial and subsequent fuel qualities and test cycles for estimating emissions are different.

Table source: Arthur D. Little, 1998. Case Study – The Introduction of Improved Transport Fuel Qualities in Finland and Sweden.

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